The Westcar Papyrus
King Khufu sat to hear tales told by his sons
regarding the wonders of other days and the doings of magicians. The Prince
Khafra stood before him and related the ancient story of the wax crocodile.
The Wax Crocodile
Once upon a time a Pharaoh went
towards the temple of the god Ptah. His counselors and servants accompanied
him. It chanced that he paid a visit to the villa of the chief scribe, behind
which there was a garden with a stately summer house and a broad artificial
lake. Among those who followed Pharaoh was a handsome youth, and the scribe's
wife beheld him with love. Soon afterwards she sent gifts unto him, and they had
secret meetings. They spent a day in the summer house, and feasted there, and in
the evening the youth bathed in the lake. The chief butler then went to his
master and informed him what had come to pass.
The scribe bade the servant to bring a certain magic box, and
when he received it he made a small wax crocodile, over which he muttered a
spell. He placed it in the hands of the butler, saying: "Cast this image
into the lake behind the youth when next he bathes himself."
On another day, when the scribe dwelt with Pharaoh, the
lovers were together in the summer house, and at eventide the youth went into
the lake. The butler stole through the garden, and stealthily he cast into the
water the wax image, which was immediately given life. It became a great
crocodile that seized the youth suddenly and took him away.
Seven days passed, and then the scribe spoke to the Pharaoh
regarding the wonder which had been done, and made request that His Majesty
should accompany him to his villa. The Pharaoh did so, and when they both stood
beside the lake in the garden the scribe spoke magic words, bidding the
crocodile to appear. As he commanded, so did it do. The great reptile came out
of the water carrying the youth in its jaws.
The scribe said: "Lo! it shall do whatever I command to
Said the Pharaoh: "Bid the crocodile to return at once
to the lake."
Ere he did that, the scribe touched it, and immediately it
became a small image of wax again. The Pharaoh was filled with wonder, and the
scribe related unto him all that had happened, while the youth stood waiting.
Said His Majesty unto the crocodile: "Seize the
The wax image was again given life, and, clutching the youth,
leaped into the lake and disappeared. Nor was it ever seen after that. Then
Pharaoh gave command that the wife of the scribe should be seized. On the north
side of the house she was bound to a stake and burned alive, and what remained
of her was thrown into the Nile.
Such was the tale told by Khafra. Khufu was well pleased, and
caused offerings of food and refreshment to be placed in the tombs of the
Pharaoh and his wise servant.
Prince Khafra stood before His Majesty, and said: "I
will relate a marvel which happened in the days of King Sneferu, thy
father." Then he told the story of the green jewel.
The Story of the Green
Sneferu was one day disconsolate
and weary. He wandered about the palace with desire to be cheered, nor was there
aught to take the gloom from his mind. He caused his chief scribe to be brought
before him, and said: "I would fain have entertainment, but cannot find any
in this place."
The scribe said: "Thy Majesty should go boating on the
lake, and let the rowers be the prettiest girls in your harem. It will delight
your heart to see them splashing the water where the birds dive and to gaze upon
the green shores and the flowers and trees. I myself will go with you."
The king consented, and twenty virgins who were fair to
behold went into the boat, and they rowed with oars of ebony which were
decorated with gold. His Majesty took pleasure in the outing, and the gloom
passed from his heart as the boat went hither and thither, and the girls sang
together with sweet voices.
It chanced, as they were turning round, an oar handle brushed
against the hair of the girl who was steering, and shook from it a green jewel,
which fell into the water. She lifted up her oar and stopped singing, and the
others grew silent and ceased rowing.
Said Sneferu: "Do not pause; let us go on still
The girls said: "She who steers has lifted her
Said Sneferu to her: "Why have you lifted your
"Alas, I have lost my green jewel she said it has fallen
into the lake."
Sneferu said: "I will give you another; let us go
The girl pouted and made answer: "I would rather have my
own green jewel again than any other."
His Majesty said to the chief scribe: "I am given great
enjoyment by this novelty; indeed my mind is much refreshed as the girls row me
up and down the lake. Now one of them has lost her green jewel, which has
dropped into the water, and she wants it back again and will not have another to
The chief scribe at once muttered
a spell. Then by reason of his magic words the waters of the lake were divided
like a lane. He went down and found the green jewel which the girl had lost, and
came back with it to her. When he did that, he again uttered words of power, and
the waters came together as they were before.
(This part was borrowed by
the inventors of the Fable story of moses and the fictitious exodus)
The king was well pleased, and when he had full enjoyment
with the rowing upon the lake he returned to the palace. He gave gifts to the
chief scribe, and everyone wondered at the marvel which he had accomplished.
Such was Khafra's tale of the
green jewel, and King Khufu commanded that offerings should be laid in the tombs
of Sneferu and his chief scribe, who was a great magician.
Next Prince Hordadef stood before the king, and he said:
"Your Majesty has heard tales regarding the wonders performed by magicians
in other days, but I can bring forth a worker of marvels who now lives in the
Djedi the magician
King Khufu said: "And who is he, my
"His name is Dedi," answered Prince Hordadef.
"He is a very old man, for his years are a hundred and ten. Each day he
eats a joint of beef and five hundred loaves of bread, and drinks a hundred jugs
of beer. He can smite off the head of a living creature and restore it again; he
can make a lion follow him; and he knows the secrets of the habitation of the
god Thoth, which Your Majesty has desired to know so that you may design the
chambers of your pyramid."
King Khufu said: "Go now and find this man for me,
The prince went down to the Nile, boarded a boat, and sailed
southward until he reached the town called Dedsnefru, where Dedi had his
dwelling. He went ashore, and was carried in his chair of state towards the
magician, who was found lying at his door. When Dedi was awakened, the king's
son saluted him and bade him not to rise up because of his years. The prince
said: "My royal father desires to honour you, and will provide for you a
tomb among your people."
Dedi blessed the prince and the king with thankfulness, and
he said to Hordadef: "Greatness be thine; may your Ka have victory over the
powers of evil, and may your Khu follow the path which leads to Paradise."
Hordadef assisted Dedi to rise up, and took his arm to help
him towards the ship. He sailed away with the prince, and in another ship were
his assistants and his magic books.
"Health and strength and plenty be thine," said
Hordadef, when he again stood before his royal father King Khufu. "I have
come down stream with Dedi, the great magician."
His Majesty was well pleased, and said: "Let the man be
brought into my presence."
Dedi came and saluted the king, who said: "Why have I
not seen you before?"
"He that is called cometh," answered the old man;
"you have sent for me and I am here."
"It is told," King Khufu said, "that you can
restore the head that is taken from a live creature."
"I can indeed, Your Majesty," answered Dedi.
The king said: "Then let a prisoner be brought forth and
"I would rather it were not a man," said Dedi;
"I do not deal even with cattle in such a manner."
A duck was brought forth and its head was cut off, and the
head was thrown to the right and the body to the left. Dedi spoke magic words.
Then the head and the body came together, and the duck rose up and quacked
loudly. The same was done with a goose.
King Khufu then caused a cow to be brought in, and its head
was cut off. Dedi restored the animal to life again, and caused it to follow
him. His Majesty then spoke to the magician and said: "It is told that you
possess the secrets of the dwelling of the god Thoth."
Dedi answered: "I do not possess them, but I know where
they are concealed, and that is within a temple chamber at Heliopolis. There the
plans are kept in a box, but it is no insignificant person who shall bring them
to Your Majesty."
"I would fain know who will deliver them unto me,"
King Khufu said.
Dedi prophesied that three sons
would be born to Rud-dedit, wife of the chief priest of Ra. The eldest would
become chief priest at Heliopolis and would possess the plans. He and his
brothers would one day sit upon the throne and rule over all the land.
King Khufu's heart was filled with gloom and alarm when he
heard the prophetic words of the great magician.
Dedi then said: "What are your thoughts, O King? Behold
your son will reign after you, and then his son. But next one of these children
King Khufu was silent. Then he spoke and asked: "When shall these children
Dedi informed His Majesty, who said: "I will visit the
temple of Ra at that time."
Dedi was honored by His Majesty, and there after wards dwelt
in the house of the Prince Hordadef. He was given daily for his portion an ox, a
thousand loaves of bread, a hundred jugs of beer, and a hundred bunches of
The day came when the sons of the
woman Rud-dedit were to be born. Then the high priest of Ra, her husband, prayed
unto the goddess Isis and her sister Nepthys; to Meskhent, goddess of birth; and
to the frog goddess Hekt; and to the creator god
Isis called the first child who
was born Userkaf, and said: "Let no evil be done by him". The goddess
Meskhent prophesied that he would become King of Egypt. Khnumu, the creator god,
gave the child strength.
The second babe was named Sahura by the goddess Isis.
Meskhent prophesied that he also would become a king. Khnumu gave him his
The third was called Kaka. Meskhent said: "He shall also
be a king", and Khnumu gave him strength.
Ere the dancing girls took their departure the high priest
gave a measure of barley to their burden bearer, and Khnumu carried it away upon
his shoulders. They all went upon their way, and Isis said: "Now let us
work a wonder on behalf of these children, so that their father may know who
hath sent us unto his house.
Royal crowns were fashioned and
concealed in the measure of barley which had been given them. Then the deities
caused a great storm to arise, and in the midst of it they returned to the
dwelling of the high priest, and they put the barley in a cellar, and sealed it,
saying they would return again and take it away.
It came to pass that after fourteen days Rud-dedit bade her
servant to bring barley from the cellar so that beer might be made. The girl
said: "There is none left save the measure which was given unto the dancing
"Bring that then," said Rud-dedit, "and when
the dancing girls return I will give them its value."
When the servant entered the cellar she heard the low sounds
of sweet music and dancing and song. She went and told her mistress of this
wonder, and Rud-dedit entered the cellar, and at first could not discover whence
the mysterious sounds issued forth. At length she placed her ear against the
sack which contained the barley given to the dancing girls, and found that the
music was within it. She at once placed the sack in a chest and locked it, and
then told her husband, and they rejoiced together.
Now it happened that one day
Rud-dedit was angry with her servant, and smote her heavily. The girl vowed that
she would be avenged and said: "Her three children will become kings. I
will inform King Khufu of this matter."
So the servant went away and visited her uncle, who was her
mother's eldest brother. Unto him she told all that had happened and all she
knew regarding the children of her mistress.
He was angry with her and spoke, saying: "Why come to me
with this secret? I cannot consent to make it known as you desire."
Then he struck the girl, who went afterwards to draw water
from the Nile. On the bank a crocodile seized her, and she was devoured. The man
then went towards the dwelling of Rud-dedit and he found her mourning with her
head upon her knees. He spoke, saying: "Why is your heart full of
Rud-dedit answered him: "Because my servant girl went
away to reveal my secret."
The man bowed and said: "Behold! she came unto me and
told me all things. But I struck her, and she went towards the river and was
seized by a crocodile."
So was the danger averted. Nor did King Khufu ever discover
the babes regarding whom Dedi had prophesied. In time they sat upon the throne